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Azerbaijani
Azeri
, آذربایجان دیلی, Азәрбајҹан дили
(Iran), Latin (Azerbaijan), and Cyrillic (Russia).
Pronunciation
Native to
Region ,
Ethnicity
24 million (2022)
Dialects
(extinct)


various others
( ) ( ) (rarely)
Official status

(Russia)
(North Azerbaijani)
Language codes
– inclusive code
Individual codes:
 – North Azerbaijani
 – South Azerbaijani
 – 
 – 
phonetic symbols. Without proper , you may see instead of characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see .
Part of on
) ) , )
Persecution

Azerbaijani ( / ˌ æ z ər b aɪ ˈ dʒ æ n i , - ɑː n i / ) or Azeri ( / æ ˈ z ɛər i , ɑː -, ə -/ ), also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish , is a Turkic language from the Oghuz sub-branch spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people , who live mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan where the North Azerbaijani variety is spoken, and in the Azerbaijan region of Iran , where the South Azerbaijani variety is spoken. Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are significant differences in phonology , lexicon , morphology , syntax , and sources of loanwords .

North Azerbaijani has official status in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (a federal subject of Russia ), but South Azerbaijani does not have official status in Iran, where the majority of Azerbaijani people live. It is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Azerbaijani communities of Georgia and Turkey and by diaspora communities, primarily in Europe and North America.

Both Azerbaijani varieties are members of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. The standardized form of North Azerbaijani (spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) is based on the Shirvani dialect, while South Azerbaijani uses the Tabrizi dialect as its prestige variety. Since the Republic of Azerbaijan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Northern Azerbaijani uses the Latin script. South Azerbaijani, on the other hand, has always used and continues to use the Perso-Arabic script . Azerbaijani language is closely related to Gagauz , Qashqai , Crimean Tatar , Turkish , and Turkmen , sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages.

Etymology and background [ edit ]

Historically the language was referred by its native speakers as türk dili or türkcə , [5] meaning either "Turkish" or "Turkic". After the establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR , [6] on the order of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin , the "name of the formal language" of the Azerbaijan SSR was changed from "Turkish" to "Azerbaijani". [6] The language is usually referred to as Turki or Torki in Iranian Azerbaijan . [7]

History and evolution [ edit ]

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Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic ("Western Turkic") [9] which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe , [10] [11] and northern Iran, in Western Asia , during the medieval Turkic migrations . [12] Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian. [13] Azerbaijani is, perhaps after Uzbek , the Turkic language upon which Persian and other Iranian languages have exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax, and vocabulary, less in morphology. [14]

The Turkic language of Azerbaijan gradually supplanted the Iranian languages in what is now northwestern Iran, and a variety of languages of the Caucasus and Iranian languages spoken in the Caucasus , particularly Udi and Old Azeri . By the beginning of the 16th century, it had become the dominant language of the region. It was a spoken language in the court of the Safavids , Afsharids and Qajars .

The historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: early (c. 14th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Early Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much larger number of Persian and Arabic loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc.). As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research , its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses.

The Russian annexation of Iran 's territories in the Caucasus through the Russo-Iranian wars of 1804–1813 and 1826-1828 split the language community across two states. Afterwards, the Tsarist administration encouraged the spread of Azerbaijani in eastern Transcaucasia as a replacement for Persian spoken by the upper classes, and as a measure against Persian influence in the region. [15] [16]

Between c. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in what is now the Azerbaijan Republic, popularized by scholars such as Hasan bey Zardabi and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski . Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature. They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style.

The Soviet Union promoted the development of the language but set it back considerably with two successive script changes [17] – from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script – while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian script as they always had. Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1956. [18] After independence, the Republic of Azerbaijan decided to switch back to a modified Latin script.

Azerbaijani literature [ edit ]

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The development of Azerbaijani literature is closely associated with Anatolian Turkish, written in Perso-Arabic script . Examples of its detachment date to the 14th century or earlier. [19] [20] Kadi Burhan al-Din , Hasanoghlu , and Imadaddin Nasimi helped to establish Azerbaiijani as a literary language in the 14th century through poetry and other works. [20] The ruler of the Qara Qoyunlu state, Jahanshah , wrote poems in Azerbaijani language with the nickname "Haqiqi". [21] [22] Sultan Yaqub , the ruler of the Aq Qoyunlu state, wrote poems in the Azerbaijani language. [23] The ruler and poet Ismail I wrote under the pen name Khatā'ī (which means "sinner" in Persian ) during the fifteenth century. [24] [25] During the 16th century, the poet, writer and thinker Fuzûlî wrote mainly in Azerbaijani but also translated his poems into Arabic and Persian . [24]

Starting in the 1830s, several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani. In 1875, Akinchi ( Əkinçi / اکينچی ) ("The Ploughman") became the first Azerbaijani newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire . It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi , a journalist and education advocate. [20] Following the rule of the Qajar dynasty, Iran was ruled by Reza Shah who banned the publication of texts in Azerbaijani. [ citation needed ] Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan, it is based on the Tabrizi dialect.

Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry. His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world . It was translated into more than 30 languages. [26]

In the mid-19th century, Azerbaijani literature was taught at schools in Baku , Ganja , Shaki , Tbilisi , and Yerevan . Since 1845, it has also been taught in the Saint Petersburg State University in Russia . In 2018, Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including Indiana University , UCLA , and University of Texas at Austin . [20] The vast majority, if not all Azerbaijani language courses teach North Azerbaijani written in the Latin script and not South Azerbaijani written in the Perso-Arabic script.

Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is primarily based on the Shirvani dialect, while in the Iranian Azerbaijan region (historic Azerbaijan) it is based on the Tabrizi one.

Lingua franca [ edit ]

Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan , [27] [28] [29] the Eastern Anatolia Region and all over Iran [30] from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, [31] [32] alongside cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language (along with Azerbaijani) of all these regions, namely Persian . [33] From the early 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, these regions and territories were all ruled by the Safavids , Afsharids and Qajars until the cession of Transcaucasia proper and Dagestan by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire per the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay . Per the 1829 Caucasus School Statute, Azerbaijani was to be taught in all district schools of Ganja , Shusha , Nukha (present-day Shaki ), Shamakhi , Quba , Baku , Derbent , Yerevan , Nakhchivan , Akhaltsikhe , and Lankaran . Beginning in 1834, it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In 1853, Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate . [34]

Dialects of Azerbaijani [ edit ]

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Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family . Ethnologue classifies North Azerbaijani (spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) and South Azerbaijani (spoken in Iran, Iraq, and Syria) as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords." [3] The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) also considers Northern and Southern Azerbaijani to be distinct languages. [35]

Svante Cornell wrote in his 2001 book Small Nations and Great Powers that "it is certain that Russian and Iranian words (sic), respectively, have entered the vocabulary on either side of the Araxes river, but this has not occurred to an extent that it could pose difficulties for communication". [36] There are numerous dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects identified by Ethnologue. [3] [4]

Four varieties have been accorded ISO 639-3 language codes: North Azerbaijani, South Azerbaijani, Salchuq , and Qashqai . The Glottolog 4.1 database classifies North Azerbaijani, with 20 dialects, and South Azerbaijani, with 13 dialects, under the Modern Azeric family, a branch of Central Oghuz. [37]

In the northern dialects of the Azerbaijani language, linguists find traces of the influence of the Khazar language . [38]

According to the Linguasphere Observatory , all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages". [ citation needed ]

North Azerbaijani [ edit ]

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North Azerbaijani, [3] or Northern Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan . It is closely related to modern-day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey. It is also spoken in southern Dagestan , along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia . As of 2011, there are some 9.23 million speakers of North Azerbaijani including 4 million monolingual speakers (many North Azerbaijani speakers also speak Russian, as is common throughout former USSR countries). [3]

The Shirvan dialect as spoken in Baku is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since 1992, it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late 1990s. [39]

Ethnologue lists 21 North Azerbaijani dialects: Quba, Derbend, Baku, Shamakhi, Salyan, Lankaran, Qazakh, Airym, Borcala, Terekeme, Qyzylbash, Nukha, Zaqatala (Mugaly), Qabala, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Ganja, Shusha (Karabakh), Karapapak. [3]

South Azerbaijani [ edit ]

Comparison with other turkic languages [ edit ], azerbaijani and turkish [ edit ].

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North and South Azerbaijani speakers and Turkish speakers can communicate with varying degrees of mutual intelligibility. Turkish soap operas are very popular with Azeris in both Iran and Azerbaijan. Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (who spoke South Azerbaijani) met with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey (who spoke Turkish) in 1934; the two were filmed speaking their respective language to each other and communicated effectively. [45] [46]

Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can, to an extent, communicate with each other as both languages have substantial variation and are to a degree mutually intelligible, though it is easier for a speaker of Azerbaijani to understand Turkish than the other way around. [47]

In a 2011 study, 30 Turkish participants were tested to determine how well they understood written and spoken Azerbaijani. It was found that even though Turkish and Azerbaijani are typologically similar languages, on the part of Turkish speakers the intelligibility is not as high as is estimated. [48] In a 2017 study, Iranian Azerbaijanis scored in average 56% of receptive intelligibility in spoken language of Turkish. [49]

Azerbaijani exhibits a similar stress pattern to Turkish but simpler in some respects. Azerbaijani is a strongly stressed and partially stress-timed language, unlike Turkish which is weakly stressed and syllable-timed.

Below are some words with different pronunciations in Azerbaijani and Turkish but have the same meaning in both languages:

Azerbaijani Turkish English
/ shoes
foot
book
blood
goose
eyebrow
snow
stone

Azerbaijani and Turkmen [ edit ]

The 1st person personal pronoun is mən in Azerbaijani just as men in Turkmen , whereas it is ben in Turkish. The same is true for demonstrative pronouns bu , where sound b is replaced with sound m . For example: bunun > munun / mının , muna / mına , munu / munı , munda / mında , mundan / mından . [50] This is observed in the Turkmen literary language as well, where the demonstrative pronoun bu undergoes some changes just as in: munuñ , munı , muña , munda , mundan , munça . [51] b > m replacement is encountered in many dialects of the Turkmen language and may be observed in such words as: boyun > moyın in Yomut - Gunbatar dialect, büdüremek > müdüremek in Ersari and Stavropol Turkmens' dialects, bol > mol in Karakalpak Turkmens' dialects, buzav > mizov in Kirac dialects. [52]

Here are some words from the Swadesh list to compare Azerbaijani with Turkmen: [53]

Azerbaijani Turkmen English
I, me
sen you
haçan when
başga other
, it, köpek dog
skin, leather
egg
heart
to hear

Oghuric [ edit ]

Azerbaijani dialects share paradigms of verbs in some tenses with the Chuvash language , [38] on which linguists also rely in the study and reconstruction of the Khazar language . [38]

Phonology [ edit ]

Phonotactics [ edit ].

Azerbaijani phonotactics is similar to that of other Oghuz Turkic languages, except:

  • Trimoraic syllables with long vowels are permissible.
  • There is an ongoing metathesis of neighboring consonants in a word. [54] Speakers tend to reorder consonants in the order of decreasing sonority and back-to-front (for example, iləri becomes irəli, köprü becomes körpü, topraq becomes torpaq). Some of the metatheses are so common in the educated speech that they are reflected in orthography (all the above examples are like that). This phenomenon is more common in rural dialects but observed even in educated young urban speakers, but noticeably absent from some Southern dialects.
  • Intramorpheme /q/ becomes /x/ .

Consonants [ edit ]

Consonant of Standard Azerbaijani
 
                  ( )    
/       ( )  
     
                   
                     
  • The sound [k] is used only in loanwords; the historical unpalatalized [k] became voiced to [ɡ] .
  • /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ are realised as [t͡s] and [d͡z] respectively in the areas around Tabriz and to the west, south and southwest of Tabriz (including Kirkuk in Iraq); in the Nakhchivan and Ayrum dialects, in Cəbrayil and some Caspian coastal dialects;. [55]
  • Sounds /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ may also be recognized as separate phonemic sounds in the Tabrizi and southern dialects. [56]
  • In most dialects of Azerbaijani, /c/ is realized as [ ç ] when it is found in the syllabic coda or is preceded by a voiceless consonant (as in çörək [t͡ʃøˈɾæç] – "bread"; səksən [sæçˈsæn] – "eighty").
  • /w/ exists in the Kirkuk dialect as an allophone of /v/ in Arabic loanwords .
  • In the Baku subdialect, /ov/ may be realised as [oʊ] , and /ev/ and /øv/ as [øy] , e.g. qovurma /ɡovurˈmɑ/ → * qourma [ɡoʊrˈmɑ] , sevda /sevˈdɑ/ → * söüda [søyˈdɑ] , dövran /døvˈrɑn/ → * döüran [døyˈrɑn] , as well as with surnames ending in -ov or -ev (borrowed from Russian). [57]
  • In colloquial speech, /x/ is usually pronounced as [χ]

Dialect consonants [ edit ]

  • Dz dz— [d͡z]
  • Ð ð— [ð] [ citation needed ]
  • W w— [w, ɥ]
  • [d͡z] —dzan [d͡zɑn̪]
  • [t͡s] —ćay [t͡sɑj]
  • [ŋ] —ataŋın [ʔɑt̪ɑŋən̪]
  • [ɢ] —q̇ar [ɢɑɾ]
  • [ð] —əðəli [ʔæðæl̪ɪ]
  • [w] —dowşan [d̪ɔːwʃɑn̪]
  • [ɥ] —töwlə [t̪œːɥl̪æ]

Vowels [ edit ]

The vowels of the Azerbaijani are, in alphabetical order, [58] a /ɑ/ , e /e/ , ə /æ/ , ı /ɯ/ , i /i/ , o /o/ , ö /ø/ , u /u/ , ü /y/ . There are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V.V boundary or fixing the pair as VC/CV pair, depending on the word.

Vowels of Standard Azerbaijani
Rounded Unrounded Rounded
with: complete vowel allophonies. You can help by . )

The typical phonetic quality of South Azerbaijani vowels is as follows:

  • /i, u, æ/ are close to cardinal [ i , u , a ] . [59]
  • The F1 and F2 formant frequencies overlap for /œ/ and /ɯ/ . Their acoustic quality is more or less close-mid central [ ɵ , ɘ ] . The main role in the distinction of two vowels is played by the different F3 frequencies in audition, [60] and rounding in articulation. Phonologically, however, they are more distinct: /œ/ is phonologically a mid front rounded vowel, the front counterpart of /o/ and the rounded counterpart of /e/ . /ɯ/ is phonologically a close back unrounded vowel, the back counterpart of /i/ and the unrounded counterpart of /u/ .
  • The other mid vowels /e, o/ are closer to close-mid [ e , o ] than open-mid [ ɛ , ɔ ] . [59]
  • /ɑ/ is phonetically near-open back [ ɑ̝ ] . [59]

Writing systems [ edit ]

Before 1929, Azerbaijani was written only in the Perso-Arabic alphabet , an impure abjad that does not represent all vowels (without diacritical marks ). In Iran, Azerbaijani is still written in a modified form of the Persian alphabet that the newspaper Varlıq (started in 1979 by Javad Heyat) set the standard for. [61] Varlıq ( وارلیق ) wrote in a reformed Perso-Arabic alphabet that represents all vowels with the exception of " Ə " as elucidated further by the newspaper's editor in a language guide written for Iranian Azerbaijanis titled " Türk dili yazı quralları " published in 2001. [61] Varlıq's standard of writing is today canonized by the official Persian–Azeri Turkish dictionary in Iran titled " lugat name-ye Turki-ye Azarbayjani ". [62]

In 1929–1938 a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic script was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow. [63] For instance, until an Aliyev decree on the matter in 2001, [64] newspapers would routinely write headlines in the Latin script, leaving the stories in Cyrillic. [65] The transition has also resulted in some misrendering of İ as Ì . [66] [67] In Dagestan, Azerbaijani is still written in Cyrillic script.

The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet, which in turn was based on former Azerbaijani Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility. The letters Әə , Xx , and Qq are available only in Azerbaijani for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish.

Old Latin
(1929–1938 version;
no longer in use;
replaced by 1991 version)
Official Latin
(Azerbaijan
since 1991)
Cyrillic
(1958 version,
still official
in Dagestan)
Perso-Arabic
(Iran;
Azerbaijan
until 1929)
IPA
A a А а آ / ـا /ɑ/
B в B b Б б ب /b/
Ç ç C c Ҹ ҹ ج /dʒ/
C c Ç ç Ч ч چ /tʃ/
D d Д д د /d/
E e Е е ئ /e/
Ə ə Ә ә ا / َ / ە /æ/
F f Ф ф ف /f/
G g Ҝ ҝ گ /ɟ/
Ƣ ƣ Ğ ğ Ғ ғ غ /ɣ/
H h Һ һ ح / ه /h/
X x Х х خ /x/
Ь ь I ı Ы ы ؽ /ɯ/
I i İ i И и ی /i/
Ƶ ƶ J j Ж ж ژ /ʒ/
K k К к ک /k/, /c/
Q q Г г ق /ɡ/
L l Л л ل /l/
M m М м م /m/
N n Н н ن /n/
Ꞑ ꞑ - - ݣ / نگ /ŋ/
O o О о وْ /o/
Ɵ ɵ Ö ö Ө ө ؤ /ø/
P p П п پ /p/
R r Р р ر /r/
S s С с ث / س / ص /s/
Ş ş Ш ш ش /ʃ/
T t Т т ت / ط /t/
U u У у ۇ /u/
Y y Ü ü Ү ү ۆ /y/
V v В в و /v/
J j Y y Ј ј ی /j/
Z z З з ذ / ز / ض / ظ /z/
- ʼ ع /ʔ/

Northern Azerbaijani, unlike Turkish, respells foreign names to conform with Latin Azerbaijani spelling, e.g. Bush is spelled Buş and Schröder becomes Şröder . Hyphenation across lines directly corresponds to spoken syllables, except for geminated consonants which are hyphenated as two separate consonants as morphonology considers them two separate consonants back to back but enunciated in the onset of the latter syllable as a single long consonant, as in other Turkic languages . [ citation needed ]

Vocabulary [ edit ]

Interjections [ edit ].

Some samples include:

  • Of ("Ugh!")
  • Tez Ol ("Be quick!")
  • Tez olun qızlar mədrəsəyə ("Be quick girls, to school!", a slogan for an education campaign in Azerbaijan)

Invoking deity:

  • Aman ("Mercy")
  • Çox şükür ("Much thanks")
  • Allah Allah (pronounced as Allahallah ) ("Goodness gracious")
  • Hay Allah ; Vallah "By God [I swear it]".
  • Çox şükür allahım ("Much thanks my god")

Formal and informal [ edit ]

any . Please help by . Unsourced material may be challenged and . ) )

Azerbaijani has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is a strong tu-vous distinction in Turkic languages like Azerbaijani and Turkish (as well as in many other languages). The informal "you" is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal "you" is used when talking to someone who is older than you or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example).

As in many Turkic languages, personal pronouns can be omitted, and they are only added for emphasis. Since 1992 North Azerbaijani has used a phonetic writing system, so pronunciation is easy: most words are pronounced exactly as they are spelled.

Category English North Azerbaijani (in script)
Basic expressions yes /hæ/ (informal), (formal)
no /jox/ (informal), (formal)
hello /sɑlɑm/
goodbye /ˈsɑɣ ol/
/ˈsɑɣ olun/ (formal)
good morning /sɑbɑhɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/
good afternoon /ɟynoɾt(ɑn)ɯz xejiɾ/
good evening /ɑxʃɑmɯn xejiɾ/
/ɑxʃɑmɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/
Colours black /ɡɑɾɑ/
blue /ɟøj/
brown /
grey /boz/
green /jaʃɯl/
orange /nɑɾɯnd͡ʒɯ/
pink

/t͡ʃæhɾɑjɯ/

purple

/bænøvʃæji/

red /ɡɯɾmɯzɯ/
white /ɑɣ/
yellow /sɑɾɯ/

Numbers [ edit ]

Number Word
0 /ˈsɯfɯɾ/
1 /biɾ/
2 /ici/
3 /yt͡ʃ/
4 /døɾd/
5 /beʃ/
6 /ɑltɯ/
7 /jed:i/
8 /sæc:iz/
9 /doɡ:uz/
10 /on/

For numbers 11–19, the numbers literally mean "10 one, 10 two" and so on.

Number Word
20 /ijiɾmi/
30 /otuz/
40 /ɡɯɾx/
50 /ælli/

Greater numbers are constructed by combining in tens and thousands larger to smaller in the same way, without using a conjunction in between.

Notes [ edit ]

  • ^ Former Cyrillic spelling used in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic .
  • The written language of the Iraqi Turkmen is based on Istanbul Turkish using the modern Turkish alphabet .
  • Professor Christiane Bulut has argued that publications from Azerbaijan often use expressions such as "Azerbaijani (dialects) of Iraq" or "South Azerbaijani" to describe Iraqi Turkmen dialects "with political implications"; however, in Turcological literature, closely related dialects in Turkey and Iraq are generally referred to as "eastern Anatolian" or "Iraq-Turkic/-Turkman" dialects, respectively. [1]
  • ^ Since Azerbaijan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, northern Azerbaijani uses the Latin alphabet. Iranian Azerbaijani, on the other hand, has always used and continues to use Arabic script. [40]
  • ^ Excluded from the alphabet in 1938
  • ^ /iɾmi/ is also found in standard speech.

References [ edit ]

  • ^ a b c d e f g "Azerbaijani, North" . Ethnologue . Archived from the original on 5 June 2019 . Retrieved 2 February 2020 .
  • ^ a b c d e f "Azerbaijani, South" . Ethnologue . Archived from the original on 5 June 2019 . Retrieved 2 February 2020 .
  • ^ "Türk dili, yoxsa azərbaycan dili? (Turkish language or Azerbaijani language?)" . BBC (in Azerbaijani). 9 August 2016 . Retrieved 15 August 2016 .
  • ^ a b "AZERBAIJAN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 2-3 . 1987. pp. 205–257.
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  • ^ V. Minorsky . Jihān-Shāh Qara-Qoyunlu and His Poetry (Turkmenica, 9). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. — Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies, 1954. — V.16, p . 272, 283: «It is somewhat astonishing that a sturdy Turkman like Jihan-shah should have been so restricted in his ways of expression. Altogether the language of the poems belongs to the group of the southern Turkman dialects which go by the name of Azarbayjan Turkish.» ; «As yet nothing seems to have been published on the Br. Mus. manuscript Or. 9493, which contains the bilingual collection of poems of Haqiqi, i.e. of the Qara-qoyunlu sultan Jihan-shah (A.D. 1438—1467).»
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  • ^ a b c "Khazar language" . Great Russian Encyclopedia (in Russian).
  • ^ Schönig 1998 , p. 248.
  • ^ , Mokari & Werner 2017 , p. 207.
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  • ^ "The World Factbook" . Cia.gov . Retrieved 13 July 2013 .
  • ^ Yelda, Rami (2012). A Persian Odyssey: Iran Revisited . AuthorHouse. ISBN   978-1-4772-0291-3 . , p. 33
  • ^ Mafinezam, Alidad; Mehrabi, Aria (2008). Iran and Its Place Among Nations . Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN   978-0-275-99926-1 . , p. 57
  • ^ Azerbaijani (Azeri) , UNESCO
  • ^ Sağın-Şimşek Ç, König W. Receptive multilingualism and language understanding: Intelligibility of Azerbaijani to Turkish speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism. 2012;16(3):315-331. doi:10.1177/1367006911426449
  • ^ Salehi, Mohammad; Neysani, Aydin (2017). "Receptive intelligibility of Turkish to Iranian-Azerbaijani speakers". Cogent Education . 4 (1): 10. doi : 10.1080/2331186X.2017.1326653 . S2CID   121180361 .
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  • ^ a b c Mokari & Werner (2016) , p. 509.
  • ^ Mokari & Werner 2016 , p. 514.
  • ^ a b Azeri Arabic Turk standard of writing; authored by Dr. Javad Heyat; 2001 http://www.azeri.org/Azeri/az_arabic/azturk_standard.pdf
  • ^ Ameli, Seyed Hassan (2021). لغت‌نامه ترکی آذربایجانی: حروف آ (جلد ۱ (in Persian and Azerbaijani). Mohaghegh Ardabili. ISBN   978-600-344-624-3 .
  • ^ Dooley, Ian (6 October 2017). "New Nation, New Alphabet: Azerbaijani Children's Books in the 1990s" . Cotsen Children's Library (in English and Azerbaijani). Princeton University WordPress Service . Retrieved 13 December 2017 . Through the 1990s and early 2000s Cyrillic script was still in use for newspapers, shops, and restaurants. Only in 2001 did then president Heydar Aliyev declare "a mandatory shift from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet" ... The transition has progressed slowly.
  • ^ Peuch, Jean-Christophe (1 August 2001). "Azerbaijan: Cyrillic Alphabet Replaced By Latin One" . Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty . Retrieved 13 December 2017 .
  • ^ Monakhov, Yola (31 July 2001). "Azerbaijan Changes Its Alphabet" . Getty Images . Retrieved 13 December 2017 .
  • ^ Khomeini, Ruhollah (15 March 1997). Translated by Dilənçi, Piruz. "Ayətulla Homeynì: "... Məscìd ìlə mədrəsədən zar oldum" " . Müxalifət (in Azerbaijani and Persian). Baku . Retrieved 13 December 2017 .
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Bibliography [ edit ]

  • Brown, Keith, ed. (24 November 2005). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics . Elsevier . ISBN   978-0-08-054784-8 .
  • Kök, Ali (2016). "Modern Oğuz Türkçesi Diyalektlerinde Göçüşme" [Migration in Modern Oghuz Turkish Dialects]. 21. Yüzyılda Eğitim Ve Toplum Eğitim Bilimleri Ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi (in Turkish). 5 (15). ISSN   2147-0928 .
  • Mokari, Payam Ghaffarvand; Werner, Stefan (2016), Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Katarzyna (ed.), "An acoustic description of spectral and temporal characteristics of Azerbaijani vowels" , Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics , 52 (3), doi : 10.1515/psicl-2016-0019 , S2CID   151826061
  • Mokari, Payam Ghaffarvand; Werner, Stefan (2017). "Azerbaijani". Journal of the International Phonetic Association . 47 (2): 207. doi : 10.1017/S0025100317000184 . S2CID   232347049 .
  • Sinor, Denis (1969). Inner Asia. History-Civilization-Languages. A syllabus . Bloomington. pp. 71–96. ISBN   978-0-87750-081-0 .
  • Schönig, Claus (1998). "Azerbaijanian". The Turkic Languages . London: Routledge: 248.

External links [ edit ]

  • A blog on Azerbaijani language resources and translations
  • (in Russian) A blog about the Azerbaijani language and lessons
  • azeri.org , Azerbaijani literature and English translations.
  • Online bidirectional Azerbaijani-English Dictionary [broken as of 2022]
  • Learn Azerbaijani at learn101.org.
  • Pre-Islamic roots
  • Azerbaijan-Turkish language in Iran by Ahmad Kasravi.
  • including sound file.
  • Azerbaijani<>Turkish dictionary (Pamukkale University)
  • Azerbaijan Language with Audio
  • Azerbaijani thematic vocabulary
  • AzConvert , an open source Azerbaijani transliteration program.
  • Chart: Four Alphabet Changes in Azerbaijan in the 20th century
  • Chart: Changes in the Four Azerbaijan Alphabet Sequence in the 20th century
  • Baku’s Institute of Manuscripts: Early Alphabets in Azerbaijan
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Iranian Azeris: A Giant Minority

Brewing discontent among Iran's Azeri population has potential implications for U.S. and Western policy toward Tehran.

Recently in Iran, tens of thousands of Iranian Azeris took to the streets for several days of demonstrations touched off by the May 12 publication of a racist cartoon in the state-run Iran newspaper. (The cartoon depicted an Azeri-speaking cockroach.) Iranian security forces cracked down violently on the demonstrators, killing at least four people (Azeri nationalists claim twenty dead), injuring forty-three, and detaining hundreds of others. These developments indicate brewing discontent among Iran’s Azeri population and should be studied for their implications for U.S. and Western policy toward Tehran.

Deeper Issues at Play

The Iranian regime’s effort to put out this ethnic brushfire by closing the Tehran-based Iran newspaper and arresting its editor as well as the ethnic Azeri cartoonist quickly escalated to the usual strongarm response as the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps’ anti-riot units and Basij militias attacked the Azeri protesters. Iranian security forces cracked down on tens thousands of offended Azeris, who took to the streets in Tehran and in the major northwestern Iranian cities such as Tabriz, Urumieh, Ardebil, Maragheh, and Zenjan. The intelligence service launched a massive detention campaign, rounding up relatives of Azeri Turks previously jailed for Turkish nationalism.

The Iranian deputy interior minister for security affairs, Ali Asghar Ahmadi, admitted that the demonstrations in Tabriz were far more than a mere protest against a newspaper insult. In fact, there is much resentment in Iranian Azerbaijan about the region’s economic and social difficulties. That resentment is fed by the attitudes of ethnic Persians toward ethnic Azeris—an attitude well captured in the phrase “Torki khar” (Turkish donkey), used by Persians in reference to Azeris, whom they regard as the “muscle” of the Iranian economy to be dominated by Persian “brains”.

Azeri Turks, concentrated mainly in the oil-poor northwest of Iran (along the border with Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan), make up an estimated one-fourth of Iran’s population of 70 million. Azeris often claim a population share close to 40 percent, a number that includes ethnic brethren such as the Turkmen, Qashgais, and other Turkic-speaking groups. Unlike other ethnic groups in Iran such as Sunni Kurds and Arabs, the Azeri Turks are Shiites like the Persians. Divided from their kin in Azerbaijan by the 1828 Treaty of Turkmanchai, which gave northern Azerbaijan to Russia (that part of Azerbaijan gained independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991) and southern Azerbaijan to Iran, the Azeris’ role in the Persian government was significantly weakened when the Pahlavi dynasty came into power in 1925. Contact between the Azeri areas of Iran and the Soviet Union were limited until Soviet forces occupied northern Iran during World War II. In 1945, at Soviet instigation, an Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was proclaimed in Iranian Azerbaijan. It lasted only until Soviet forces withdrew a year later; in the aftermath, some thousands of Iranian Azeris were killed.

Much as did imperial Iran, the Islamic regime has downplayed the ethnic differences between Persians and Azeris. Despite the fact that influential figures in the establishment, such as Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, are of Azeri descent, the mullahs did not hesitate to crack down hard on Azeri Turkish nationalism, using heavy weapons to put down a 1981 uprising in Tabriz and summarily executing hundreds of Azeris.

Azeris have had mixed relationships with other Iranian minorities. Kurds, who make up around 14 percent of Iran’s population, do not have particularly good relations with ethnic Azeris; several cities in western Iran, such as Urumieh and Mako, are inhabited by both Kurds and by Azeri Turks. In the last decade, the ethnic majority of the Azeri Turks in some areas close to the border with Turkey has been diluted by immigration of Kurds. The attitudes of the Turkic-speaking ethnic Turkmens, who live in the part of Iran near the independent republic of Turkmenistan, are unclear.

Growing Azeri Nationalism

The last fifteen years has seen a boom in nationalist publications for Iranian Azeris and growing interest in both Turkey and the former Soviet republic of Azerbaijan. A considerable number of Iranian Azeris watch Turkish television broadcasts now available via satellite; this has increased their knowledge of Turkey as well as the Anatolian dialect of Turkish.

This revival led to the creation of a new organization, the South Azerbaijan National Awakening Movement (Gamoh), by literature professor Mahmudali Chohraganli. After winning election to the Iranian parliament in 1995, Chohraganli, whose own father was once tortured by the Shah’s secret police for Turkish nationalism, was not allowed to take his seat. Gamoh opposes what it calls “Persian chauvinism,” demanding more cultural rights for Azeris, and a future Iranian government with a federal structure resembling the United States in which Azeris can have their own flag and parliament. Gamoh’s proclaimed support for self-determination, secular government and a pro-Western orientation does not sit well with Tehran. Its apparent popularity has put Gamoh squarely on Tehran’s radar screen.

Gamoh is run as a secret organization inside Iran. Its members, including Chohraganli, who was jailed for two years and released in 1999 after falling seriously ill, are often jailed or harassed by Iranian security forces. Denied visas by both the Turkish and Azerbaijani governments, Chohraganli was allowed to travel to the United States in 2002. In April 2005, bodies of two Gamoh members were found floating in the Aras River, the boundary between Iran and Azerbaijan. In September 2005, the Iranian government blamed Gamoh for the shooting of a government official in Urumieh; Gamoh denied involvement. In March 2006, several Gamoh members attended the Second World Azerbaijanis Congress in Baku. Following that congress, several Gamoh members were arrested in Tabriz, and in April the Iranian Azeri newspaper Navid Azerbaijan was banned.

The plight of Iranian Azeris is followed closely by their kin in Azerbaijan and Turkey. But both the Azerbaijani and Turkish governments take care not to damage their sensitive relations with the Iranian government. Turkey recently stopped allowing a Chicago-based Azeri television broadcaster, Gunaz, from using its satellite link. Gunaz is known for its virulent opposition to Iran’s Islamic regime and its separatist attitude since it went on the air in 2005. On the other hand, Ankara has given Chohraganli permission to visit Turkey soon, and Gamoh has an open presence there.

Azerbaijan is also walking a fine line between sympathy for the Iranian Azeris and its economic and political interests with the Islamic regime. Tehran recently consented to the opening of an Azerbaijani consulate general in Tabriz, Iran’s largest Azeri-majority city. With annual bilateral trade volume of $600 million, Iran is a major trading partner of and an investor in Azerbaijan; Tehran also offers humanitarian aid to the almost one million Azerbaijanis internally displaced from Nagorno-Karabakh after Armenia occupied that part of Azerbaijan in 1993. Yet the Azerbaijani public is largely sympathetic to the plight of Iranian Azeris. “Baku, Tabriz, Ankara. Where are the Persians? Here we are!” chanted the Azeri Turks in Baku this week as they protested the brutal treatment of their ethnic kin by Iranian security forces. Many Azeri nationalists are interested in uniting “North” Azerbaijan (the former Soviet republic) with “South” Azerbaijan (the Iranian provinces).

Ethnic tensions in Iran have been on the rise with unpredictable results, involving not just Azeris but also Kurds, Arabs, and Baluchs. The government of President Mahmoud Ahmadinezhad has only made these problems worse.

Ali M. Koknar is the owner of AMK Risk Management, a private security consultancy with offices in Washington, DC, and Turkey specializing in counterterrorism and international organized crime.

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Az•er•bai•ja•ni

Also az`er•bai•ja′ni•an,.

- an ethnic group living in Azerbaijan , - people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
  • Azerbaijani
  • ethnic group
  • Azaleastrum
  • azathioprine
  • Azcapotzalco
  • azelaic acid
  • Azerbaidzhan
  • Azerbaijani monetary unit
  • Azerbaijani Republic
  • Azerbajdzhan
  • Azerbajdzhan Republic
  • azerty keyboard
  • azido group
  • azido radical
  • azidothymidine
  • azimuth angle
  • Azimuth circle
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  • azimuthal equidistant projection
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  • Azerbajijan
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Azerbaijan , also spelled Azerbaidzhan , officially Azerbaijani Republic , Azerbaijani Azärbayjan Respublikasi , country of eastern Transcaucasia . Occupying an area that fringes the southern flanks of the Caucasus Mountains, it is bounded on the north by Russia , on the east by the Caspian Sea , on the south by Iran , on the west by Armenia , and on the northwest by Georgia . The exclave of Naxçıvan ( Nakhichevan ) is located southwest of Azerbaijan proper, bounded by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey . Azerbaijan includes within its borders the predominantly Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh , which from 1988 was the focus of intense conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia. The capital of Azerbaijan is the ancient city of Baku (Bakı), whose harbour is the best on the Caspian Sea.

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In addition to its variegated and often beautiful terrain , Azerbaijan offers a blend of traditions and modern development. The people of its remoter areas retain many distinctive folk traditions, but the lives of its inhabitants have been much influenced by accelerating modernization, characterized by industrialization, the development of power resources, and the growth of the cities, in which more than half the people now live. Industry dominates the economy, and more-diversified pursuits have supplemented the exploitation of oil, of which Azerbaijan was the world’s leading producer at the beginning of the 20th century. Fine horses and caviar continue as some of the more distinctive traditional exports of the republic.

Azerbaijan was an independent nation from 1918 to 1920 but was then incorporated into the Soviet Union . It became a constituent (union) republic in 1936. Azerbaijan declared sovereignty on September 23, 1989, and independence on August 30, 1991.

As a result of its broken relief, drainage patterns, climatic differences, and sharply defined altitudinal zoning of vegetation, Azerbaijan is characterized by a wide variety of landscapes. More than two-fifths of its territory is taken up by lowlands, about half lies at 1,300 to 4,900 feet (400 to 1,500 metres), and areas above 4,900 feet occupy a little more than one-tenth of the total area.

The highest peaks are Bazardyuzyu (Bazardüzü; 14,652 feet [4,466 metres]), Shakhdag, and Tufan, all part of the Greater Caucasus range, the crest of which forms part of Azerbaijan’s northern boundary. Magnificent spurs and ridges, cut into by the deep gorges of mountain streams, make this part of Azerbaijan a region of great natural beauty. At the same time, it lies within a region characterized by a high degree of seismic activity.

The spurs of the Lesser Caucasus , in southwestern Azerbaijan, form the second important mountain system, which includes the Shakhdag, Murovdag, and Zangezur ranges, their summits rising to nearly 13,000 feet, and also the Karabakh Upland. The large and scenic Lake Geygyol lies at an altitude of 5,138 feet.

The southeastern part of Azerbaijan is bordered by the Talish (Talysh) Mountains , consisting of three longitudinal ranges, with Mount Kyumyurkyoy as the highest peak (8,176 feet), and the Länkäran Lowland , along the Caspian coast. This lowland, an extension of the Kura-Aras Lowland , reaches the Iranian border near Astara.

The Kura-Aras Lowland is named for the main river, the Kura (Kür), and its tributary the Aras (Araz). The Shirvan, Milskaya, and Mugan plains are part of this lowland and have similar soils and climate. Gray soils and saline solonchaks (aridisols) and, in higher regions, gray alkaline solonetz and chestnut soils (mollisols) prevail.

A well-developed network of canals between the Kura and Aras rivers makes it possible to irrigate a major part of the lowland. The Upper Karabakh Canal, 107 miles (172 kilometres) long, provides a vital link between the Aras River and the Mingäçevir Reservoir on the Kura River . The reservoir has a surface area of 234 square miles and a maximum depth of 246 feet. The Upper Karabakh Canal alone irrigates more than 250,000 acres (100,000 hectares) of fertile land and in addition supplies the Aras River with water during dry summer periods. The Upper Shirvan Canal, the second most important canal, is 76 miles in length and also irrigates about 250,000 acres.

The dry subtropical climate of central and eastern Azerbaijan is characterized by a mild winter and a long (four to five months) and very hot summer, with temperatures averaging about 81 °F (27 °C) and maximum temperatures reaching 109 °F (43 °C).

Southeastern Azerbaijan is characterized by a humid subtropical climate with the highest precipitation in the country, some 47 to 55 inches (1,200 to 1,400 millimetres) a year, most of it falling in the cold months.

A dry continental climate, with a cold winter and a dry, hot summer, prevails in Naxçıvan at altitudes of 2,300 to 3,300 feet. Moderately warm, dry, or humid types of climate are to be found in other parts of Azerbaijan. The mountain forest zone has a moderately cold climate, while an upland tundra climate characterizes elevations of 10,000 feet and above. Frosts and heavy snowfalls make the passes at such altitudes inaccessible for three or four months of the year.

Natural vegetation zones vary according to altitude. Steppe and semidesert conditions prevail in the lowlands and the foothills of the mountain regions. The slopes of the mountains are covered with beech, oak, and pine forests. Higher up there is a zone of alpine meadows. The Länkäran region of southern Azerbaijan has evergreen vegetation and thick beech and oak forests.

In the lowlands the animal life includes gazelles, jackals, and hyenas as well as reptile and rodent species. The mountain regions are inhabited by Caucasian deer, roe deer , wild boar, brown bear , lynx, European bison (wisent), chamois, and leopard, though the latter is rare. Mild winters draw many birds to the Caspian coast , and nature reserves provide a resting home for flamingos, swans, pelicans, herons, egrets, sandpipers, and partridges.

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Azeri gas means the energy security of Hungary

The increased natural gas production in Azerbaijan can play an important role in the energy security of Hungary and central Europe, Péter Szijjártó, the minister of foreign affairs and trade, said on Tuesday, adding that this required regional infrastructure developments supported by the European Union.

The severe energy crisis has made Azerbaijan more important for Europe, Szijjártó told a press conference held jointly with Azerbaijan’s economy minister, according to a foreign ministry statement. He argued that increased natural gas production in the South Caucasus country was the best option for Europe to diversify its gas supplies in the short and medium term.

“It has become clear to everyone that it’s no longer enough to just talk about so-called diversification, but it is something we are forced to do,” Szijjártó said. “If Europe can’t acquire new energy sources, if it can’t build new energy supply routes, then energy supply won’t be secure.”

It is in Hungary’s interest to incorporate Azeri energy sources into its energy mix as soon as possible, the minister said, adding that this required large-scale infrastructure developments in south-eastern and central Europe, too. New interconnectors have to be built and delivery capacities have to be increased, Szijjártó said. This requires EU support and resources, he added.

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Szijjártó said Hungary has turned to the European Commission together with Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia, asking Brussels to treat the matter as a priority and provide support for the developments needed to guarantee the region’s energy security.

He welcomed Azerbaijan’s aim to double gas supplies to Europe by 2027. He also underscored the importance of creating the contractual and physical conditions needed to deliver the gas from the southern corridor to the central part of Europe.

Szijjártó said this situation would make it clear whether the EU had only been paying lip service to diversification and the importance of central Europe’s energy security, or if it was actually prepared to take steps to guarantee it.

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Both sides are politically committed to the gas deliveries, Szijjártó said, adding that the Hungarian government was hopeful that Azeri gas could start contributing to Hungary’s energy security as soon as possible. Talks between Hungarian and Azeri energy companies are already under way, he added.

Szijjártó said the foundations for a gas supply agreement were sound, noting that Hungary and Azerbaijan already had a strategic partnership. This, he added, will be raised to the next level during a visit by Azeri President Ilham Aliyev this month, he added.

He said that whereas the Hungarian opposition had criticised the government’s initial talks on developing cooperation with Azerbaijan over a decade ago, leading European politicians were now all wanted “to have their photo taken with the Azeri president”.

“The world has changed a lot over the past decade, but we still hold the same position as in the past,” Szijjártó said.

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  • Triple Crown
  • Horses First

Azeri: A Standard of Excellence

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Allen E. Paulson and his family are no doubt best known in Thoroughbred racing for owning the great champion Cigar , one of the sport’s most brilliant males.

Yet the Paulsons’ stable also had a fabulous stretch of success with fillies and mares. Allen and his wife, Madeleine, raced an impressive of list of distaff champions that included Eliza (1992 2-year-old filly), Ajina (1997 3-year-old filly), Escena (1998 champion older female), and Estrapade (1986 turf female).

The best of those fabulous fillies, though, raced after Allen’s death in July 2000.

Bred by Allen E. Paulson and racing under the name of the Allen E. Paulson Living Trust, Azeri debuted on Nov. 1, 2001 in a maiden race at Santa Anita Park .

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By the time her career came to an end after the 2004 Breeders’ Cup Classic, Azeri had 17 wins in 24 starts and at 70.8% sported an even better career winning percentage than the mighty Cigar (19 of 33, 57.5%). She also had earnings of $4,079,820 which stood as the all-time best total for a female until Zenyatta came around, and in 2010 would join Cigar as the two Hall of Famers who names were permanently linked to Paulson.

Azeri may not have won 16 straight races like Cigar, but like him, she set standards of excellence few horses have ever matched.

Michael Paulson, Allen’s son, headed the family’s racing operation at the time of Azeri’s first race. Little was expected from the homebred daughter of Jade Hunter as she made her belated career debut near the end of her 3-year-old season. She was sent off at 17-1 odds in a field of nine, but a six-length victory changed any and all impressions as Azeri won impressively at first asking for trainer Laura de Seroux and regular rider Mike Smith , covering six furlongs in a very fleet 1:08.82.

A pair of allowance wins followed, but Azeri’s stakes debut resulted in a runner-up finish to Summer Colony in the 2002 La Canada Stakes at Santa Anita.

The loss stung, but what came next resurrected memories of Cigar. Azeri reeled off 11 straight wins, taking four straight Grade 1 stakes: the Santa Margarita, Apple Blossom, Milady Breeders’ Cup Handicap, and Vanity Handicap. Wins in the Grade 2 Clement Hirsch and Lady’s Secret Breeders’ Cup Handicap followed and set the stage for her coronation in the $2 million Breeders’ Cup Distaff. Sent off as an $1.80-to-1 favorite, Azeri romped by five lengths to secure not just an Eclipse Award as the year’s champion older female but also the title of 2002’s Horse of the Year for the Paulsons and De Seroux.

Azeri continued her winning ways in 2003, taking the Apple Blossom, Milady, Vanity, and Hirsch, but in her final prep for the Breeders’ Cup she finished second as a 1-5 favorite in the Lady’s Secret at Santa Anita. A tendon injury discovered later marked a premature end to a campaign which would be rewarded with a second straight crown as the best older female.

De Seroux wanted to retire her, but Michael Paulson believed she could return to the races and brought in D. Wayne Lukas to take over her training.

In April of 2004, Azeri made her comeback in the Apple Blossom, but the injury and the debate about her retirement created doubts about her capabilities. She was dismissed as just the third choice in a field of six.

She once again ran like a champion, though, winning by a length and a half for her third triumph in as many tries in Oaklawn Park ’s Grade 1 test.

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The rest of 2004 was not as glimmering as 2003 and 2002 were, yet even though she won just two of her next seven races, she nevertheless became the first distaff runner to be named the champion older female in three straight years.

“When (Azeri) was on top of the world, she was on top of the world. She was amazing. She did everything we asked of her,” Smith said in 2010 after Azeri was voted into the Hall of Fame.

Her final start came in the 2004 Breeders’ Cup Classic when she finished fifth behind Ghostzapper .

Yet if there was a race that fall which encapsulated everything about her, it came one start earlier in the Spinster Stakes. In Keeneland ’s Grade 1 classic for distaff runners, Azeri was sent off as a heavy 2-5 favorite and drew off to win decisively by three lengths.

It didn’t happen all the time in 2004, but on that October day, Azeri reminded everyone that Cigar was not the only the Hall of Fame runner to sport the Paulsons’ red, white, and blue colors.

There was also a filly who was every bit as worthy as him of the mantle of a champion.

Fun Facts About Azeri

  • Azeri and Zenyatta are the only horses to receive an Eclipse Award as the champion older female in three straight years.
  • Allen E. Paulson, an aviator, named Azeri after a checkpoint for airlines in Baku, Azerbaijan.
  • Azeri was bought back by Paulson for $110,000 at the 1999 Keeneland September Yearling sale.
  • Oaklawn Park, where Azeri won the Apple Blossom three times, is now home to the Azeri Stakes.
  • Azeri was sold as a broodmare for $2.25 million to Japanese interests at the 2009 Keeneland November sale.
  • Azeri was the third female to be named Horse of the Year, following All Along and Lady’s Secret .

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  1. Azerbaijanis

    The modern ethnonym "Azerbaijani" or "Azeri" refers to the Turkic peoples of Iran 's northwestern historic region of Azerbaijan (also known as Iranian Azerbaijan) and the Republic of Azerbaijan. [62] They historically called themselves or were referred to by others as Muslims, Turks. They were also referred to as Ajam (meaning from Iran), using the …

  2. Azerbaijani language

    Azerbaijani (/ ˌ æ z ər b aɪ ˈ dʒ æ n i,-ɑː n i /) or Azeri (/ æ ˈ z ɛər i, ɑː-, ə-/), also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language from the Oghuz sub-branch spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who live mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan where the North Azerbaijani variety is spoken, and in the Azerbaijan region of Iran, where the South …

  3. Iranian Azeris: A Giant Minority

    Azeri Turks, concentrated mainly in the oil-poor northwest of Iran (along the border with Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan), make up an estimated one-fourth of Iran’s population of 70 million. Azeris often claim a population share close to 40 percent, a number that includes ethnic brethren such as the Turkmen, Qashgais, and other Turkic-speaking …

  4. Azeri

    n. pl. A·zer·is. 1. A member of a traditionally Shiite Muslim people of Azerbaijan and adjacent areas of Armenia and northern Iran; an Azerbaijani. 2. The Azerbaijani language. [Turkish azerî, from Persian āzarī, from āzarbaijān, northwest Iran, from Arabization of Persian āzarbāyigān, alteration of āzarbādgān, from Middle Iranian āturpātakān, ultimately after …

  5. Azerbaijan

    Azerbaijan was an independent nation from 1918 to 1920 but was then incorporated into the Soviet Union. It became a constituent (union) republic in 1936. Azerbaijan declared sovereignty on September 23, 1989, and independence on August 30, 1991. Land Relief, drainage, and soils

  6. Azeris shoot themselves in the foot by blocking the Lachin Corridor

    Right now, 120,000 Armenians in Artsakh are trying to survive in sub-zero temperatures without heat, food and medicines due to the blockade of the Lachin Corridor by Azeri eco-terrorists who are...

  7. A Guide to the Azerbaijani Language

    Azerbaijani, or Azeri, is part of the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages along with Turkish and Turkmen. Statistics suggest Azeri and Turkish speakers can understand each other more than 80% of the time. Azeri has influences from both Russia and Arabic too. Today, the language sounds similar to modern Turkish and uses the Latin script with …

  8. Azeri gas means the energy security of Hungary

    The increased natural gas production in Azerbaijan can play an important role in the energy security of Hungary and central Europe, Péter Szijjártó, the minister of foreign affairs and trade, said on Tuesday, adding that this required regional infrastructure developments supported by the European Union.

  9. Azeri Definition & Meaning

    The meaning of AZERI is azerbaijani. Turkish Azeri & Azerbaijani azäri, ultimately from Arabic ādhar-, short for Ādharbayjān Azerbaijan

  10. Azeri: A Standard of Excellence

    Fun Facts About Azeri. Azeri and Zenyatta are the only horses to receive an Eclipse Award as the champion older female in three straight years. Allen E. Paulson, an aviator, named Azeri after a checkpoint for airlines in Baku, Azerbaijan. Azeri was bought back by Paulson for $110,000 at the 1999 Keeneland September Yearling sale.